Agari houki 「アガリ放棄」, or a dead hand, is a lesser penalty compared to chombo. A penalty for a dead hand denies the player to win the corresponding turn, when the minor rule violation was committed. A player may still defend the hand and utilize betaori.
When the player's hand is declared dead, additional tile calls are prohibited. This includes all tile calls, win by ron or tsumo, or declare riichi. Afterwards, play continues; and the penalized player must continue to draw and discard tiles as normal. Once again, all tile calls are barred. Any additional tile calls with a dead hand results in a chombo. If the player called riichi before the hand was declared dead, the hand continues but 1000 points for riichi may not be reclaimed. Finally, if the hand results in ryuukyoku, dead hand is never considered tenpai, because a win may not be called.
Wrong amount of tiles
At any point of the game, if the player has less or more than 13 tiles before drawing the next tile, the hand is considered dead.
Drawing from the dead wall
Accidentally drawing from the dead wall will result in a dead hand.
Improper tile calls
Players may end up calling on discarded tiles, without having the appropriate tiles to complete a tile group. For example, a player may call "pon" on a tile, without having the prerequisite paired tiles.